Buildings used to be built with what iscalled working stress design. This methodinvolved making sure the stresses experienced by thematerials

Buildings used to be built with what iscalled working stress design. This methodinvolved making sure the stresses experienced by thematerials would not exceed the yield stressso no plastic deformation could occur. Currently ultimatestress design is much more common.This design sets the maximum stress allowable to theultimate tensile stress, which allows someplastic deformation to occur, allowing less materialto be used. If we have steel with a Young’s modulus of 205 GPa a yield strength of 370 MPa and an ultimate strength of 440Mpa.

Required:
a. What is the percentage decrease in the amount of steel used for the ultimate stress design compared to the working stress design?
b. Calculate the area of a 3 m long beam you would need to withstand 10^6 N for each of the two design methods.

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